Romania is a parliamentary democratic republic that has a ‘semi-presidential’ system, which includes both a Prime Minister, as head of government, and a President, as head of state.
The political system in Romania often results in two or more parties cooperating to form coalition governments. Today we have a coalition government with three parties: the Social Democratic Party (PSD), the National Liberal Party (PNL), and the Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR/RMDSZ).
The modern Romanian Constitution was adopted in 1991 to establish Romania as a democratic republic and a social state with a balance of power between the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. Amendments to the Constitution can be proposed by the President, by a coalition of at least one-fourth of the Deputies or Senators, or by petition of eligible voters representing at least half of all Romanian counties.
The Romanian Parliament is a bicameral legislative body made up of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. Members of the legislature are elected every four years to debate and pass new laws. Deputies and Senators are elected by direct vote to represent their constituencies every four years.
Chamber of Deputies
The Chamber of Deputies is composed of 332 Deputies. The Chamber of Deputies is led by the President of the Chamber of Deputies, who is elected from among the Deputies by secret ballot at the start of the legislative period, along with four vice-presidents, four secretaries, and four quaestors.
The current President of the Chamber of Deputies is Marcel Ciolacu (PSD). He also serves as a member of the delegation of the Romanian Parliament to the NATO parliamentary assembly.
The Senate is composed of 176 Senators. The Senate is led by the President of the Senate, four vice-presidents, four secretaries, and four quaestors.
The Prime Minister is the head of the executive branch of the Romanian government and charged with enacting domestic and foreign policy. In consultation with Parliament, the President designates a candidate for Prime Minister. Once designated, the candidate assembles a proposal for the governing program and the cabinet. The proposal must be approved by a majority of both house of Parliament within ten days. Nicolae Ciucă (PNL) serves as the current Prime Minister of Romania.
The president of Romania serves as the head of state. Following a modification to the Romanian Constitution in 2003, the president is directly elected by a two-round system and serves for five years. During their term in office, the president may not be a formal member of a political party. The President serves as head of state, representing Romania in important national and international ceremonies and events. The President serves as the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. Klaus Iohannis has served as President of Romania since 2014.
The Romanian judiciary is a hierarchical system of courts that includes the High Court of Cassation and Justice, the Courts of Appeal, the Prosecutor’s offices, tribunals, and district and local courts. The High Court of Cassation and Justice is the highest court in Romania and responsible for ensuring uniform interpretation and application of the law by all other courts.